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Sunday, May 26th 2013

6:20 AM

المصارف والعمل المصرفي في العراق

المصرف  أو البنك كما متعارف عليه هو مؤسسة مالية ووسيط مالي يقبل الودائع ويوجه هذه الودائع للمساهمة في أنشطة اقتصادية مختلفة إما مباشرة بإقراضها أو بشكل غير مباشر عبر الأسواق المالية . إن المصرف هو الواسطة بين زبائن يحتاجون إلى رأسمال مع زبائن لديهم فائض في الرأسمال. وقد نشأت المصارف منذ القرن الرابع عشر في مدن النهضة في إيطاليا بشكلها الحديث مع إن مفاهيم الائتمان والإقراض تمتد في عمق التاريخ المعروف.

ومن أجل بناء وتعمير البنية الارتكازية والبنية الفوقية لأي مجتمع لا بد أن تتوفر الموارد اللازمة إضافة إلى وسائل توجيه هذه الموارد نحو تحقيق أهداف البناء والتعمير المطلوبة دون امتصاص الموارد المباشرة للمجتمع أي دون التأثير على ميزانياته السنوية وفي نفس الوقت فتح المجال للقطاع الخاص بالمشاركة الجدية في البناء بتوفير الأموال اللازمة له . إن توفير الأموال للنشاط الاقتصادي يأتي من خلال العمل المصرفي والأسواق المالية لذلك نجد من الضروري أن تتوفر نافذة المصرف في كل مكان ليكون الوصول إليه سهلا وفي متناول الجميع مثل المنتج والصانع والعامل والزراعي والفلاح وغيرهم.

وتقوم المصارف عادة بتوفير المنافذ المصرفية لتكون قريبة من جميع أفراد المجتمع وقد تم التوصل إلى ضرورة توفر نافذة مصرفية واحدة (مصرف رئيسي أو فرع للمصرف) لكل ألف شخص من السكان وهذا معدل مقبول عالميا. ونجد مثلا إن سكان الأردن مثلا يصل تعدادهم إلى أربعة ملايين نسمة بيتنا تتوفر في الأردن مصارف وفروع مصارف بعدد يزيد على 4500 فرع أي يتوفر فرع واحد لكل (900) تسعمائة شخص تقريبا في المملكة.

ولنعد إلى العراق بعدد سكانه الذي يقارب 35 مليون نسمة حسب تصريح وزير التخطيط قبل أيام فنرى إنه يحتاج إلى (35000) خمسة وثلاثون ألف فرع مصرف. وبمراجعة سريعة لعدد فروع المصارف الحكومية نجد أن مصرف الرافدين يملك حوالي 170 فرعا ويضم مصرف الرشيد نفس العدد تقريبا بينما تصل أعداد فروع المصارف الأهلية إلى ما لا يزيد عن 300 فرعا في عموم مساحة العراق فيصبح مجموع المصارف بفروعها أقل من (650) ستمائة وخمسين فرعا أي إن العجز في عدد الفروع التي يحتاجها بلد مثل العراق يتجاوز (34350) فرعا .. أي كأننا نحتاج إلى شبكة جديدة متكاملة من المصارف.

وتفتقر العديد من المدن الصغيرة و الأقضية والنواحي والقرى إلى فروع المصارف التي يمكن أن تخدمها وتخدم تنميتها وتطورها. ولا بد من الإشارة إلى أن تحديد حركة هذه المصارف والفروع بآليات عمل ترجع في مستواها إلى بدايات القرن العشرين وتبنى أسسها على عدم الثقة بالمواطن وبالنظام المالي وبالأوراق المالية وأسلوب الإقراض والتسديد المتخلف وأساليب العمل المتخلفة والمعقدة واليدوية ..إن مثل هذا التحديد يجعل من تأثير العدد الضئيل المتوفر من هذه المصارف أصلا تأثيرا غير محسوس على مجمل أعمال التنمية والبناء والتطور وعموم النشاط الاقتصادي.

ونتيجة لما جاء أعلاه لا بد أن نصل  إلى أهمية أن يقوم البنك المركزي العراقي والحكومة بشكل عام بتبني خطة سريعة لإعادة النظر في كل القوانين والأنظمة والتعليمات المتبعة حاليا من أجل تحقيق المشاركة الفعلية للمصارف في تنشيط الاقتصاد والبناء وتسريع عجلته في جميع المجالات الإنمائية الصناعية والزراعية والخدمية وغيرها. وأن يكون ذلك باستيعاب كل الأفكار والمقترحات والدراسات من جميع الأطراف مع أهمية الاستيعاب الكامل لمفاهيم التقنيات الحديثة وأساليب العمل المستخدمة في دول تقدمت علينا أشواطا في مجال العمل المصرفي.

لنفتح الباب واسعا أمام أي مناقشة في هذا المجال عسى أن يقرأ المعنيون يوما هذا الكلام وأن يفهموه بعد أن يقرؤوه وأن يتبعوه بعد أن يفهموه.

عبدالعزيز الونداوي


1 التعليقات.

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